Great Mosque of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 8th/12th C.

Great Mosque of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 8th/12th C.

Palmyra, Hadrian’s Arch, , 3rd century A.D., view from south at the entrance to colonnaded street

Palmyra, Hadrian’s Arch, , 3rd century A.D., view from south at the entrance to colonnaded street

Raqqa - Qasr al-Banat, inner courtyard

Raqqa – Qasr al-Banat, inner courtyard

In the Euphrates valley in Jurn Kabir, shepherd herding the flocks of his village

In the Euphrates valley in Jurn Kabir, shepherd herding the flocks of his village

Raqqa, Qasr (Palace) al-Banat

Raqqa, Qasr (Palace) al-Banat

The arcade wall of Great Mosque of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 8th/12th C.

The arcade wall of Great Mosque of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 8th/12th C.

Wakil house, dome of the reception hall from the inside

Wakil house, dome of the reception hall from the inside

Jamiʿ al-Maydani, the minaret

Jamiʿ al-Maydani, the minaret

Khan al-Wazir, general view

Khan al-Wazir, general view

Jamiʿ al-Maydani, the minaret

Jamiʿ al-Maydani, the minaret

Hama, Waterwheels of Kilaniyya, al-Tawafira and al-Jaʿbariyya

Hama, Waterwheels of Kilaniyya, al-Tawafira and al-Jaʿbariyya

Aleppo, Khan as-Sabun, view at eastern arcade in the first floor

Aleppo, Khan as-Sabun, view at eastern arcade in the first floor

Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, interior

Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, interior

Traditional house in neighborhood "al-Almaji"

Traditional house in neighborhood “al-Almaji”

Jamiʿ al-Utrush, general view of western facade and minaret

Jamiʿ al-Utrush, general view of western facade and minaret

Khan as-Sabun, view of eastern gallery, northern inner facade and building part inside of courtyard

Khan as-Sabun, view of eastern gallery, northern inner facade and building part inside of courtyard

Excavation work, Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi

Excavation work, Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi

Khan as-Sabun, inner northern facade after widening the street

Khan as-Sabun, inner northern facade after widening the street

Courtyard of the Great Mosque, view towards east

Courtyard of the Great Mosque, view towards east

Graves upon Jabal ʿAruda

Graves upon Jabal ʿAruda

Khan al-Wazir, view of the arcade in the first floor

Khan al-Wazir, view of the arcade in the first floor

ِAleppo, Khan as-Sabun, partial view from eastern arcade in the first floor

ِAleppo, Khan as-Sabun, partial view from eastern arcade in the first floor

Turbat Khaʾirbak (mausoleum), western facade - inscription band

Turbat Khaʾirbak (mausoleum), western facade – inscription band

Citadel of Aleppo, Entrance Gateway

Citadel of Aleppo, Entrance Gateway

Madrasat al-Firdaws, a view of the courtyard and the southern arcade

Madrasat al-Firdaws, a view of the courtyard and the southern arcade

Bayt Ajiqbash, the splendid decorated iwan

Bayt Ajiqbash, the splendid decorated iwan

Turbat Khaʾirbak (mausoleum), western facade - niche with trefoil arches

Turbat Khaʾirbak (mausoleum), western facade – niche with trefoil arches

Jamiʿ al-Maydani, the minaret

Jamiʿ al-Maydani, the minaret

Rubble management, design of a geodetic grid over rubble heap, Frauenkirche (church), Dresden, Germany

Fig.09_geodetic grid over rubble heap

Rubble management, all sides photographs of labeled stone/ fragment, Frauenkirche (church), Dresden, Germany

Fig.26_all sides photographs of labeled stone