Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, detail of Corinthian capital

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, detail of Corinthian capital

Khusrawiyya Complex, siteplan of the building parts (Arabic)

Khusrawiyya Complex, siteplan of the building parts (Arabic)

Jamiʿ as-Saffahiyya, exterior windows

Jamiʿ as-Saffahiyya, exterior windows

The dome of Maqam Salah ad-Din al-Ayyubi

The dome of Maqam Salah ad-Din al-Ayyubi

Turbat az-Zahir Baybars, mosaics covering the southern wall of the mausoleum

Turbat az-Zahir Baybars, mosaics covering the southern wall of the mausoleum

Madrasat al-Firdaws, general view of the courtyard and the arcades

Madrasat al-Firdaws, general view of the courtyard and the arcades

Busra - Madrasat Abu al-Fidaʾ - prayer hall

Busra – Madrasat Abu al-Fidaʾ – prayer hall

Busra - Madrasat Abu al-Fidaʾ, prayer hall

Busra – Madrasat Abu al-Fidaʾ, prayer hall

Busra, Madrasat Abu al-Fidaʾ, known as "Jami ad-Dabbagha'

Busra, Madrasat Abu al-Fidaʾ, known as “Jami ad-Dabbagha’

Aerial view of war damage in ancient city of Aleppo by drone

Fig.01_Drone photograph showing damage in Aleppo

Aleppo

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Mosque, interior view with mihrab and minbar.

Mosque, interior view with mihrab and minbar.

Aleppo, Khusrawiyya Complex, siteplan of the building parts (English)

Aleppo, Khusrawiyya Complex, siteplan of the building parts (English)

Khusrawiyya Complex, damage mapping (Arabic)

Khusrawiyya Complex, damage mapping (Arabic)

Khusrawiyya, northern arcade, 2018

Khusrawiyya, northern arcade, 2018

Khusrawiyya Complex, damage mapping (English)

Khusrawiyya Complex, damage mapping (English)

Jamiʿ as-Saffahiyya, muqarnas decorating the upper part of the entrance

Jamiʿ as-Saffahiyya, muqarnas decorating the upper part of the entrance

Jamiʿ as-Saffahiyya, prayer niche

Jamiʿ as-Saffahiyya, prayer niche

Madrasat al-Firdaws, the marble prayer niche (mihrab) decorated with floral and geometric motifs

Madrasat al-Firdaws, the marble prayer niche (mihrab) decorated with floral and geometric motifs

Jamiʿ as-Saffahiyya, entrance

Jamiʿ as-Saffahiyya, entrance

Madrasat al-Firdaws, general view to north - courtyard, eastern arcade and iwan

Madrasat al-Firdaws, general view to north – courtyard, eastern arcade and iwan

Madrasat al-Firdaws, lobed octagonal basin in the centre of courtyard

Madrasat al-Firdaws, lobed octagonal basin in the centre of courtyard

Madrasat al-Firdaws, the main entrance

Madrasat al-Firdaws, the main entrance

Jamiʿ as-Saffahiyya, minaret

Jamiʿ as-Saffahiyya, minaret

Dome of the mausoleum (turba) and madrasa of Amat al-Latif daughter of the an-Nasih al-Hanbali

Dome of the mausoleum (turba) and madrasa of Amat al-Latif daughter of the an-Nasih al-Hanbali

Al-Madrasa al-Halawiyya

Al-Madrasa al-Halawiyya

Al-Madrasa as-Sultaniya

Al-Madrasa as-Sultaniya

Coffehouse Aslan Dada (vanished)

Coffehouse Aslan Dada (vanished)