An aerial view of Ibn Maʿn's castle located on one of the highest mountains of Palmyra

An aerial view of Ibn Maʿn’s castle located on one of the highest mountains of Palmyra

A small window in the middle of a niche- upper floor, Qal‘at Shayzar

A small window in the middle of a niche- upper floor, Qal‘at Shayzar

Qal‘at Shayzar (Citadel), the upper part of the entarnce.

Qal‘at Shayzar (Citadel), the upper part of the entarnce.

Qal‘at Shayzar ( Citadel), An Arabic inscription on top of the citadel entrance.

Qal‘at Shayzar ( Citadel), An Arabic inscription on top of the citadel entrance.

Qal‘at Shayzar ( Citadel), An Arabic inscription.

Qal‘at Shayzar ( Citadel), An Arabic inscription.

Qal‘at Shayzar ( Citadel), An Arabic inscription.

Qal‘at Shayzar ( Citadel), An Arabic inscription.

Qal‘at Shayzar (citadel), Archery road.

Qal‘at Shayzar (citadel), Archery road.

The Citadel of Damascus from the inside, 2003

The Citadel of Damascus from the inside, 2003

Qalʿat al-Mudiq seen from the ruins of Afamiya

Qalʿat al-Mudiq seen from the ruins of Afamiya

The southern tower of Qal‘at Shayzar

The southern tower of Qal‘at Shayzar

Sarcophagus with relief decoration

Sarcophagus with relief decoration

Byzantine decorated basalt stone reused in the construction of Qal‘at Shayzar

Byzantine decorated basalt stone reused in the construction of Qal‘at Shayzar

A building belongs to Qal‘at Shayzar

A building belongs to Qal‘at Shayzar

An Arabic inscription on the wall of Qal‘at Shayzar

An Arabic inscription on the wall of Qal‘at Shayzar

The southern tower of Qal‘at Shayzar

The southern tower of Qal‘at Shayzar

Parts of Qalʿat Shayzar with one of the towers

Parts of Qalʿat Shayzar with one of the towers

A view from Qalʿat Shayzar towards the Orontes plains

A view from Qalʿat Shayzar towards the Orontes plains

Ruins of Qalʿat Maʿarrat an-Nuʿman

Ruins of Qalʿat Maʿarrat an-Nuʿman

Camel and its guide on sacrophagus

Camel and its guide on sacrophagus

The lower part of the lion of goddess Al-Lat, 1st c. AD

The lower part of the lion of goddess Al-Lat, 1st c. AD

Lion of goddess Al-Lat, 1st c. AD

Lion of goddess Al-Lat, 1st c. AD

Lion of goddess Al-Lat, 1st c. AD

Lion of goddess Al-Lat, 1st c. AD

A model of Bel Temple

A model of Bel Temple

Face sculpture, Zenobia Hotel

Face sculpture, Zenobia Hotel

Arch of Triumph (Qaws Hadrian) behind palm trees

Arch of Triumph (Qaws Hadrian) behind palm trees

Aramaic Language – Jab’adin in Munira’s Memory

A sculpture of a woman, showing clothes and jewelry details

A sculpture of a woman, showing clothes and jewelry details

Great Mosque, top of the minaret

Great Mosque, top of the minaret

Qalʿat al-Marqab, Fresco in ceiling of chapel sacristy, 12th C.

Qalʿat al-Marqab, Fresco in ceiling of chapel sacristy, 12th C.

Qalʿat al-Marqab, Fresco on the ceiling of chapel sacristy, 12th C.

Qalʿat al-Marqab, Fresco on the ceiling of chapel sacristy, 12th C.