Palmyra, Hadrian’s Arch, , 3rd century A.D., view from south at the entrance to colonnaded street

Palmyra, Hadrian’s Arch, , 3rd century A.D., view from south at the entrance to colonnaded street

The entrance into the castle of al-Marqab is framed by a stepped portal

The entrance into the castle of al-Marqab is framed by a stepped portal

Tartus, Qalʿat al-Marqab, Crusader castle, a courtyard in the castle.

Tartus, Qalʿat al-Marqab, Crusader castle, a courtyard in the castle.

Qalʿat Jaʿbar, vaulted loophole

Qalʿat Jaʿbar, vaulted loophole

ʿAyn Diwar, The Zengid bridge on the Tigris

ʿAyn Diwar, The Zengid bridge on the Tigris

Dar'a, al-Jamiʿ (mosque) al-ʿUmari- main door from the inside

Dar’a, al-Jamiʿ (mosque) al-ʿUmari- main door from the inside

Madrasat al-Firdaws, view of the southern arcade and the prayer hall entrance

Madrasat al-Firdaws, view of the southern arcade and the prayer hall entrance

Part of Qalʿat al-Qadmus

Part of Qalʿat al-Qadmus

Jisr ash-Shughur, Qalʿat Shugr wa Bekas from the inside.

Jisr ash-Shughur, Qalʿat Shugr wa Bekas from the inside.

Vaulted hall in the old city of Tartus

Vaulted hall in the old city of Tartus

Dar'a, al-Jamiʿ (mosque) al-ʿUmari - The prayer hall

Dar’a, al-Jamiʿ (mosque) al-ʿUmari – The prayer hall

Bab Qinnasrin (city gate), exterior view of the gate from south-west

Bab Qinnasrin (city gate), exterior view of the gate from south-west

Cross vaults in the prayer room of an-Nuri Mosque

Cross vaults in the prayer room of an-Nuri Mosque

Busra - Jamiʿ (mosque) al-Mabrak

Busra – Jamiʿ (mosque) al-Mabrak

Aleppo Great Mosque, courtyard general view towards north west

Aleppo Great Mosque, courtyard general view towards north west

Great Mosque, courtyard and prayer hall facade

Great Mosque, courtyard and prayer hall facade

Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, the hall

Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, the hall

Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, the hall

Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, the hall

Hama, general view of the "Four Norias", the two Bischriyyat and two Uthmaniyyat

Hama, general view of the “Four Norias”, the two Bischriyyat and two Uthmaniyyat

The stairs of the Hananiya Church in Bab Tuma quarter

The stairs of the Hananiya Church in Bab Tuma quarter

A view of an-Nuri Mosque and the Kilaniyya Norias (water wheels), Hama

A view of an-Nuri Mosque and the Kilaniyya Norias (water wheels), Hama

Madrasat al-Firdaws, courtyard and western arcade

Madrasat al-Firdaws, courtyard and western arcade

Great Mosque of Aleppo, prayer hall interior and Shrine of the Prophet Zechariah

Great Mosque of Aleppo, prayer hall interior and Shrine of the Prophet Zechariah

Jamiʿ at-Tawashi, interior view of the prayer hall

Jamiʿ at-Tawashi, interior view of the prayer hall

Bimaristan an-Nuri, courtyard

Bimaristan an-Nuri, courtyard

Remains of the western gate of the temple of Jupiter

Remains of the western gate of the temple of Jupiter

Citadel of Aleppo, general view of the Throne Hall

Citadel of Aleppo, general view of the Throne Hall

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, iwan

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, iwan

The courtyard of an-Nuri Mosque

The courtyard of an-Nuri Mosque

The Throne Hall in Damascus Citadel

The Throne Hall in Damascus Citadel