Arch bridge over the Orontes River, which leads to the Shayzar Castle

Arch bridge over the Orontes River, which leads to the Shayzar Castle

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

General view of Qalat Salah ad-Din

General view of Qalat Salah ad-Din

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

A general view of the Krak de Chevaliers at the sunset

A general view of the Krak de Chevaliers at the sunset

Children from the region, Krak des Chevaliers in the background

Children from the region, Krak des Chevaliers in the background

Jisr ash-Shughur, Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas, the trail around the two castles

Jisr ash-Shughur, Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas, the trail around the two castles

View from Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas

View from Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas

Krak des Chevaliers, courtyards

Krak des Chevaliers, courtyards

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

Naʿurat al-Muhammadiyya (waterwheel), the biggest noria in Hama

Naʿurat al-Muhammadiyya (waterwheel), the biggest noria in Hama

Damage pattern, crust on sandstone, detachment due to tensions, Castle, Hannover, Germany

Fig. 52, Catalogue of Damage

Damage pattern, single scaling in sandstone, Castle, Ludwigsburg, Germany

Fig. 35, Catalogue of Damage

Krak des Chevaliers, Gothic vaults in the loggia

Krak des Chevaliers, Gothic vaults in the loggia

Krak des chevaliers (Qalʿat al-Husn), Gothic vaults

Krak des chevaliers (Qalʿat al-Husn), Gothic vaults

Raqqa, Tall Aswad, stucco

Raqqa, Tall Aswad, stucco

A side of the walls of Qalʿat Salah ad-Din

A side of the walls of Qalʿat Salah ad-Din

Krak des Chevaliers in West Syria, 12th C.

Krak des Chevaliers in West Syria, 12th C.

Krak des Chevaliers, the loggia

Krak des Chevaliers, the loggia

Exterior view of Krak des chevaliers (Qalʿat al-Husn)

Exterior view of Krak des chevaliers (Qalʿat al-Husn)

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

Ruins of Qalʿat ash-Shugr wa-Bakas on the edge of a mountain slope

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, documentation sheet of courtyard with northern Iwan

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, documentation sheet of courtyard with northern Iwan

Busra, Hammam Manjak, iwan in the cold section (barrani)

Busra, Hammam Manjak, iwan in the cold section (barrani)

Propylaea of Jupiter Temple, Damascus

Propylaea of Jupiter Temple, Damascus

North facade of Jamiʿ an-Nuri (mosque), Homs

North facade of Jamiʿ an-Nuri (mosque), Homs

Busra, Hammam Manjak, the cold section (barrani)

Busra, Hammam Manjak, the cold section (barrani)

Busra - Hammam Manjak - the fountain of the cold section (barrani)

Busra – Hammam Manjak – the fountain of the cold section (barrani)

Busra - Hammam Manjak - Restoration works

Busra – Hammam Manjak – Restoration works