Citadel of Aleppo, entrance gateways and bridge

Citadel of Aleppo, entrance gateways and bridge

Busra, The East Gate "Nabataean Gate"

Busra, The East Gate “Nabataean Gate”

Previous state 1995, main façade of the fortified tower north of Bab Antakiya, Aleppo, Syria

Fig.41_View with ornamental details, spolia, and a coat of arms

Reconstruction (drawing) of the missing part of the main façade of the fortified tower north of Bab Antakiya, Aleppo, Syria

Fig.41-b_Marking missing stones after partial collapse

Citadel of Aleppo, Gate of Two Lions - the Smiling Lion

Citadel of Aleppo, Gate of Two Lions – the Smiling Lion

Citadel of Aleppo, entrance gateways and bridge

Citadel of Aleppo, entrance gateways and bridge

Citadel of Aleppo, Entrance Gateway

Citadel of Aleppo, Entrance Gateway

Citadel of Aleppo, Entrance Gateway

Citadel of Aleppo, Entrance Gateway

Citadel of Aleppo, Entrance Gateway

Citadel of Aleppo, Entrance Gateway

Damascus,Umayyad Mosque, pigeons in the courtyard

Damascus,Umayyad Mosque, pigeons in the courtyard

Colored mosaic in the western arcade of the Umayyad Mosque

Colored mosaic in the western arcade of the Umayyad Mosque

Ceiling of the prayer hall, Umayyad Mosque

Ceiling of the prayer hall, Umayyad Mosque

The prayer hall's arches of the Umayyad Mosque

The prayer hall’s arches of the Umayyad Mosque

Umayyad Mosque in Damascus - al-ʿArus minaret

Umayyad Mosque in Damascus – al-ʿArus minaret

Exterior view of the dome of Salah ad-Din al-Ayyubi Mausoleum, Damascus

Exterior view of the dome of Salah ad-Din al-Ayyubi Mausoleum, Damascus

General view of the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus

General view of the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus

The main arch and the integrated columns of the Nabataean gate in Busra

The main arch and the integrated columns of the Nabataean gate in Busra

The Nabataean gate with its main arch, columns and capitals

The Nabataean gate with its main arch, columns and capitals

View over the roof of the south-western Madrasat Ismaʿil Basha al-ʿAzm to the Umayyad Mosque with its high transept of the prayer hall with a central dome and its three minarets

View over the roof of the south-western Madrasat Ismaʿil Basha al-ʿAzm to the Umayyad Mosque with its high transept of the prayer hall with a central dome and its three minarets

Previous state, ornamental detail in main façade of the fortified tower north of Bab Antakiya, Aleppo, Syria

Fig.41-a1_Close-up view of ornamental panel

Previous state, ornamental detail in main façade of the fortified tower north of Bab Antakiya, Aleppo, Syria

Fig.41-a4_Close-up view of carved ornamental star

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, geometric decorations in the niche, built with bricks

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, geometric decorations in the niche, built with bricks

Raqqa, The decorated outer facade of Baghdad Gate

Raqqa, The decorated outer facade of Baghdad Gate

Baghdad Gate of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 10th c. onwards

Baghdad Gate of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 10th c. onwards

Raqqa, Bagdad Gate, Drawing of total reconstruction

Raqqa, Bagdad Gate, Drawing of total reconstruction

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Raqqa, the archway of Baghdad Gate

Raqqa, the archway of Baghdad Gate

Raqqa, Baghdad gate

Raqqa, Baghdad gate

The inner façade of Baghdad Gate, Raqqa

The inner façade of Baghdad Gate, Raqqa

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette