Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower's west-south corner

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower’s west-south corner

Safita, General view of the city showing the Donjon of the Templars

Safita, General view of the city showing the Donjon of the Templars

Citadel of Aleppo, general view of the Gate Tower

Citadel of Aleppo, general view of the Gate Tower

Citadel of Aleppo, general view of the Gate Tower

Citadel of Aleppo, general view of the Gate Tower

Safita, The Donjon of the Templars with a chapel in the ground floor

Safita, The Donjon of the Templars with a chapel in the ground floor

Arwad, Ayyubid fort, entrance

Arwad, Ayyubid fort, entrance

Arwad, Ayyubid fort

Arwad, Ayyubid fort

Citadel of Aleppo, general view of the south bastion facade

Citadel of Aleppo, general view of the south bastion facade

Citadel of Aleppo, a view from the main entrance showing the Gate Tower

Citadel of Aleppo, a view from the main entrance showing the Gate Tower

Jarada, tower

Jarada, tower

Previous state, ornamental detail in main façade of the fortified tower north of Bab Antakiya, Aleppo, Syria

Fig.41-a4_Close-up view of carved ornamental star

Previous state, ornamental detail in main façade of the fortified tower north of Bab Antakiya, Aleppo, Syria

Fig.41-a1_Close-up view of ornamental panel

General view of defensive tower to the north of city gate Bab Antakiya

General view image

Previous state, main façade of the fortified tower north of Bab Antakiya, Aleppo, Syria

Fig.41-a_Main front in 1995, with ornamental details, spolia, and a coat of arms

General view of the Umayyad Mosque shows the dome and the three minarets of the mosque

General view of the Umayyad Mosque shows the dome and the three minarets of the mosque

Remains of the western basilica, Burj Haydar

Remains of the western basilica, Burj Haydar

Remains of the western basilica, Burj Haydar

Remains of the western basilica, Burj Haydar

Burj as-Saʿa, general view

Burj as-Saʿa, general view

Gallery

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the facade

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the facade

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower's southern facade

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower’s southern facade

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower's west-south corner

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower’s west-south corner

Burj al-Ghanam, tower's southern facade with its machicolation

Burj al-Ghanam, tower’s southern facade with its machicolation

Burj al-Ghanam, partial view of the tower's south eastern facade

Burj al-Ghanam, partial view of the tower’s south eastern facade

Burj as-Saʿa, upper part of the entrance

Burj as-Saʿa, upper part of the entrance

Arwad, Ayyubid fort, courtyard

Arwad, Ayyubid fort, courtyard

Arwad, Ayyubid fort, entrance

Arwad, Ayyubid fort, entrance

Burj Alaʾ, southern facade from the inside with the arrow slit

Burj Alaʾ, southern facade from the inside with the arrow slit

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower's western facade

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower’s western facade

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower's southern facade

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower’s southern facade