Bab al-Hadid, south-west facade of the gate tower

Bab al-Hadid, south-west facade of the gate tower

Stories

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the southern facade of the tower with its machicolations and parapets

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the southern facade of the tower with its machicolations and parapets

Raqqa, Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - Excavations

Raqqa, Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – Excavations

A minaret rises above al-Bab ash-Sharqi

A minaret rises above al-Bab ash-Sharqi

al-Bab ash-Sharqi, a small arched side entrance

al-Bab ash-Sharqi, a small arched side entrance

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower's facade

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower’s facade

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower's southern facade

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower’s southern facade

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower

Reconstruction of Assyrian town Dur Katlimmu

Reconstruction of Assyrian town Dur Katlimmu

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the facade

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the facade

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower's west-south corner

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower’s west-south corner

Bab as-Salam, the "door of peace" in the north of Old Damascus

Bab as-Salam, the “door of peace” in the north of Old Damascus

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, geometric decorations in the niche, built with bricks

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, geometric decorations in the niche, built with bricks

Inscription on the Damascus wall

Inscription on the Damascus wall

Raqqa, Baghdad gate

Raqqa, Baghdad gate

Raqqa, the inner façade of Baghdad Gate (Bab Baghdad)

Raqqa, the inner façade of Baghdad Gate (Bab Baghdad)

Raqqa, Bagdad Gate, Drawing of total reconstruction

Raqqa, Bagdad Gate, Drawing of total reconstruction

Al-Jisriyya norias (water wheel), Hama

Al-Jisriyya norias (water wheel), Hama

Raqqa - Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - one of the wall tower

Raqqa – Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – one of the wall tower

Izraʿ, al-Jamiʿ (Mosque) al-ʿUmari - exterior view

Izraʿ, al-Jamiʿ (Mosque) al-ʿUmari – exterior view

View at an-Nuri Mosque and the Kilaniyya Norias on the Orontes River, Hama

View at an-Nuri Mosque and the Kilaniyya Norias on the Orontes River, Hama

Damage pattern, water infiltration, on render on brick masonry, Old city center, Warsaw, Poland

Fig. 26, Catalogue of Damage

Numbering sequence example based on the Plan of al-Madrasa al-Halawiyya

Measurement plan with arrows for numbering sequence

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

View to the east, courtyard of Jamiʿ an-Nuri (mosque), Homs

View to the east, courtyard of Jamiʿ an-Nuri (mosque), Homs

Aleppo in the 1930s, aerial view in northwest direction with the citadel and the old town in the background

Aleppo in the 1930s, aerial view in northwest direction with the citadel and the old town in the background

Bab as-Salam, portal with coloured stone layers (ablaq)

Bab as-Salam, portal with coloured stone layers (ablaq)

The main arch and the integrated columns of the Nabataean gate in Busra

The main arch and the integrated columns of the Nabataean gate in Busra