Bab Qinnasrin (city gate), exterior view of the gate from south-west

Bab Qinnasrin (city gate), exterior view of the gate from south-west

Jamiʿ al-Qayqan, Stone engraving - hieroglyphic pictorial writing

Jamiʿ al-Qayqan, Stone engraving – hieroglyphic pictorial writing

Reconstruction of Assyrian town Dur Katlimmu

Reconstruction of Assyrian town Dur Katlimmu

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower

Great Umayyad mosque and Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, Aleppo: drone photograph

1512_D.SH_2314428_Madinat-Halab-al-Qadima-05_s

Inscription on the Damascus wall

Inscription on the Damascus wall

Raqqa, enclosure wall and arcade of al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq (Great Mosque)

Raqqa, enclosure wall and arcade of al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq (Great Mosque)

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower's facade

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the tower’s facade

A small pathway in the Ghuta of Damascus

A small pathway in the Ghuta of Damascus

Jamiʿ al-Utrush, western entrance

Jamiʿ al-Utrush, western entrance

A small pathway in the Ghuta of Damascus

A small pathway in the Ghuta of Damascus

Oppenheim_98025-fin_SYRHER

Oppenheim_98025-fin_SYRHER

Oppenheim_98025-fin_SYRHER

Oppenheim_98025-fin_SYRHER

Busra, view of the Westgate of the Decumanus Maximus

Busra, view of the Westgate of the Decumanus Maximus

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the facade

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the facade

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower's west-south corner

Burj al-Ghanam, general view of the tower’s west-south corner

Raqqa - Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - one of the wall tower

Raqqa – Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – one of the wall tower

Raqqa, Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - Excavations

Raqqa, Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – Excavations

Noria (water wheel) with aqueduct in ar-Rastan in 1930

Noria (water wheel) with aqueduct in ar-Rastan in 1930

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the southern facade of the tower with its machicolations and parapets

Burj Alaʾ, general view of the southern facade of the tower with its machicolations and parapets

Aleppo in the 1930s, aerial view in northwest direction with the citadel and the old town in the background

Aleppo in the 1930s, aerial view in northwest direction with the citadel and the old town in the background

The semi-circular towers of ar-Raqqa Wall

The semi-circular towers of ar-Raqqa Wall

Raqqa - Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - Columns discovered during excavation

Raqqa – Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – Columns discovered during excavation

STUNDE NULL (2019 – 2020)

Maps of Aleppo: "Historical succession of buildings", 1982

Maps of Aleppo: “Historical succession of buildings”, 1982

Aerial view of war damage in ancient city of Aleppo by drone

Fig.01_Drone photograph showing damage in Aleppo

Tall al-Mishrifa (ancient Qatna), view of the historic citywall, within which the village is located

Tall al-Mishrifa (ancient Qatna), view of the historic citywall, within which the village is located

General view of defensive tower to the north of city gate Bab Antakiya

General view image

Maps of Aleppo: Sectoral concentration of trade and craft, 1982

Maps of Aleppo: Sectoral concentration of trade and craft, 1982

Bab Qinnasrin (city gate), inscription beside the gate from the outside

Bab Qinnasrin (city gate), inscription beside the gate from the outside