Museum of Palmyra / Tadmur, Stone-relief with figural decoration

Museum of Palmyra / Tadmur, Stone-relief with figural decoration

An inscription on the wall of Damascus Citadel

An inscription on the wall of Damascus Citadel

Al-Madrasa as-Sultaniyya, marble prayer niche

Al-Madrasa as-Sultaniyya, marble prayer niche

Al-Madrasa as-Sultaniyya, marble prayer niche

Al-Madrasa as-Sultaniyya, marble prayer niche

The remains of the temple of 'Ayn Dara

The remains of the temple of ‘Ayn Dara

Sphinx in the Temple of 'Ayn Dara

Sphinx in the Temple of ‘Ayn Dara

A niche with muqarnas on the main entrance of al-Bimaristan an-Nuri

A niche with muqarnas on the main entrance of al-Bimaristan an-Nuri

Hiraqla victory monument

Hiraqla victory monument

Al-Bimaristan an-Nuri, Ornaments above the door lintel

Al-Bimaristan an-Nuri, Ornaments above the door lintel

Bimaristan an-Nuri, The main entrance decorated with muqarnas

Bimaristan an-Nuri, The main entrance decorated with muqarnas

An inscription on the wall of Damascus Citadel

An inscription on the wall of Damascus Citadel

Mausoleum of az-Zahir Baybars, colorful marble niche

Mausoleum of az-Zahir Baybars, colorful marble niche

Tomb of Elahbel in the Valley of the Tombs, interior view

Tomb of Elahbel in the Valley of the Tombs, interior view

A general view of Zawiyat Saʿd ad-Din al-Jibawi showing the two domes of the building

A general view of Zawiyat Saʿd ad-Din al-Jibawi showing the two domes of the building

Mausoleum of az-Zahir Baybars, decorations with colorful marble

Mausoleum of az-Zahir Baybars, decorations with colorful marble

Raqqa - "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace - finds

Raqqa – “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace – finds

Abacus of collapse mechanisms of churches, lines of vulnerability, San Salvatore a Campi, Perugia, Italy

Fig.17-b-1b_collapse mechanism, overturning of the facade

The entrance of al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya is richly decorated with ablaq masonry, a muqarnas vault and inscriptions

The entrance of al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya is richly decorated with ablaq masonry, a muqarnas vault and inscriptions

ar-Rusafa, view into a conche of the Tetraconch-Church

ar-Rusafa, view into a conche of the Tetraconch-Church

Busra - Masjid Yaqut (mosque) - founding inscription

Busra – Masjid Yaqut (mosque) – founding inscription

The main facade of al-Bimaristan an-Nuri in Damascus

The main facade of al-Bimaristan an-Nuri in Damascus

Raqqa, "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa, “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Prayer hall "sanctuary", Jamiʿ Manjak (mosque)

Prayer hall “sanctuary”, Jamiʿ Manjak (mosque)

Stucco decorations in situ, Kharab Sayyar

Stucco decorations in situ, Kharab Sayyar

Al-Madrasa as-Sultaniyya, marble prayer niche

Al-Madrasa as-Sultaniyya, marble prayer niche

Monastery of St. Simeon Stylites, late 5th-early 6th c., Exterior of sanctuary of east basilica (apse from exterior)

Monastery of St. Simeon Stylites, late 5th-early 6th c., Exterior of sanctuary of east basilica (apse from exterior)

Raqqa, "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa, “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Damage pattern, anthropogenic impact on sandstone, Karnak Temple, Luxor, Egypt

Fig. 62, Catalogue of Damage

Abacus of collapse mechanisms of churches, lines of vulnerability, San Salvatore a Campi, Perugia, Italy

Fig.17-b_Simulation of collapse mechanisms

Abacus of collapse mechanisms of churches, lines of vulnerability, San Salvatore a Campi, Perugia, Italy

Fig.17-b-1a_collapse mechanism, overturning of the facade