Tower north of Bab Antakiya. The inscription indicates a restoration by the Mamluk ruler al-Malik al-Muʾayyad Shaykh between 820/1417 and 823/1420

Tower north of Bab Antakiya. The inscription indicates a restoration by the Mamluk ruler al-Malik al-Muʾayyad Shaykh between 820/1417 and 823/1420

ar-Rusafa, North Gate of the city wall, interior

ar-Rusafa, North Gate of the city wall, interior

ar-Rusafa, view into a conche of the Tetraconch-Church

ar-Rusafa, view into a conche of the Tetraconch-Church

Raqqa, "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa, “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, entrance - a stone base (spolia) which is the cathedral baptismal font

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, entrance – a stone base (spolia) which is the cathedral baptismal font

Jamiʿ al-Qayqan, Stone engraving - hieroglyphic pictorial writing

Jamiʿ al-Qayqan, Stone engraving – hieroglyphic pictorial writing

An inscription on the wall of Damascus Citadel

An inscription on the wall of Damascus Citadel

Bimaristan an-Nuri, The main entrance decorated with muqarnas

Bimaristan an-Nuri, The main entrance decorated with muqarnas

Side of the Ruins, Sirjilla

Side of the Ruins, Sirjilla

Stone sarcophagi in the pyramidal mausoleum A, al-Bara

Stone sarcophagi in the pyramidal mausoleum A, al-Bara

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Bab Qinnasrin (city gate), exterior view of the gate from south-west

Bab Qinnasrin (city gate), exterior view of the gate from south-west

Archaeological objects, ar-Raqqa Museum

Archaeological objects, ar-Raqqa Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Remains of the facade of an building, Sirjilla

Remains of the facade of an building, Sirjilla

Raqqa, "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa, “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa - the excavations of the site "East of Raqqa", Palace D, stucco decorations

Raqqa – the excavations of the site “East of Raqqa”, Palace D, stucco decorations

The remains of the temple of 'Ayn Dara

The remains of the temple of ‘Ayn Dara

Sacrophagi decorated with sculptures of the dead

Sacrophagi decorated with sculptures of the dead

A niche with muqarnas on the main entrance of al-Bimaristan an-Nuri

A niche with muqarnas on the main entrance of al-Bimaristan an-Nuri

The entrance of al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya is richly decorated with ablaq masonry, a muqarnas vault and inscriptions

The entrance of al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya is richly decorated with ablaq masonry, a muqarnas vault and inscriptions

As-Sabuniyya Mosque, the main facade with muqarnas and rich decorations

As-Sabuniyya Mosque, the main facade with muqarnas and rich decorations

A general view of Zawiyat Saʿd ad-Din al-Jibawi showing the two domes of the building

A general view of Zawiyat Saʿd ad-Din al-Jibawi showing the two domes of the building

Mausoleum of az-Zahir Baybars, decorations with colorful marble

Mausoleum of az-Zahir Baybars, decorations with colorful marble

Mausoleum of az-Zahir Baybars, colorful marble niche

Mausoleum of az-Zahir Baybars, colorful marble niche

Temple of 'Ayn Dara, Giant footprints carved into the stone floor

Temple of ‘Ayn Dara, Giant footprints carved into the stone floor

Citadel of Aleppo, Temple of the Storm God Hadad - Detail on platform wall

Citadel of Aleppo, Temple of the Storm God Hadad – Detail on platform wall

Raqqa - "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace - vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa – “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace – vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa - "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace - finds

Raqqa – “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace – finds