Damascus, Propylaea of Jupiter Temple, 1st CE. AD

Damascus, Propylaea of Jupiter Temple, 1st CE. AD

Big stairs lead to the upper floor, Royal Palace G, Ebla (Tall Mardikh)

Big stairs lead to the upper floor, Royal Palace G, Ebla (Tall Mardikh)

ar-Rusafa -interior view- North Gate of the basilica

ar-Rusafa -interior view- North Gate of the basilica

Afamiya, Architectural component with showing ionic elements

Afamiya, Architectural component with showing ionic elements

Al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya, general view of the main facade and the entrance

Al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya, general view of the main facade and the entrance

Damage pattern, anthropogenic impact on sandstone, Karnak Temple, Luxor, Egypt

Fig. 62, Catalogue of Damage

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate's tower from the outside

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate’s tower from the outside

Busra, the Roman theater stage is surrounded by the Islamic citadel

Busra, the Roman theater stage is surrounded by the Islamic citadel

Fluted column- The Great Colonnade at Afamiya

Fluted column- The Great Colonnade at Afamiya

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate's tower with its machicolations and parapets

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate’s tower with its machicolations and parapets

Bab al-Hadid, inscription beside the door from outside

Bab al-Hadid, inscription beside the door from outside

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate's entrance from the outside

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate’s entrance from the outside

Al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya, general view of the entrance

Al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya, general view of the entrance

Tetrapylon and Colonnaded Street, 3rd century AD

Tetrapylon and Colonnaded Street, 3rd century AD

Afamiya, Remains of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, Remains of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, twisted and fluted columns of the central section of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, twisted and fluted columns of the central section of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, remains of the Great Colonnade (Cardo Maximus)

Afamiya, remains of the Great Colonnade (Cardo Maximus)

Twisted column - The Great Colonnade at Afamiya

Twisted column – The Great Colonnade at Afamiya

Jamiʿ al-ʿAdiliyya, capital with muqarnas of a column in the double arcade

Jamiʿ al-ʿAdiliyya, capital with muqarnas of a column in the double arcade

Jamiʿ Aslan Dada, a marble column with a Corinthian capital decorating the prayer niche

Jamiʿ Aslan Dada, a marble column with a Corinthian capital decorating the prayer niche

Jamiʿ Aslan Dada, Corinthian marble capital decorating the prayer niche

Jamiʿ Aslan Dada, Corinthian marble capital decorating the prayer niche

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, columns and pillars

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, columns and pillars

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, detail of Corinthian capital

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, detail of Corinthian capital

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, detail of Corinthian capital

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, detail of Corinthian capital

Colossal basalt lion found in 1955 in ʿAyn Dara

Colossal basalt lion found in 1955 in ʿAyn Dara

Jamiʿ al-Utrush, prayer hall

Jamiʿ al-Utrush, prayer hall

Jamiʿ at-Tawashi, east facade - one of the two columns which frame a window

Jamiʿ at-Tawashi, east facade – one of the two columns which frame a window

Bimaristan Arghun, westward view of main doorway

Bimaristan Arghun, westward view of main doorway

A general scene showing some of the ruins of Palmyra and the Castle Ibn Maʿn

A general scene showing some of the ruins of Palmyra and the Castle Ibn Maʿn

Monastery of St Simeon, Corinthian capitals decorated with wavy acanthus leaves

Monastery of St Simeon, Corinthian capitals decorated with wavy acanthus leaves