Damascus, Propylaea of Jupiter Temple, 1st CE. AD

Damascus, Propylaea of Jupiter Temple, 1st CE. AD

Al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya, general view of the entrance

Al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya, general view of the entrance

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate's tower from the outside

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate’s tower from the outside

Jamiʿ Aslan Dada, a marble column with a Corinthian capital decorating the prayer niche

Jamiʿ Aslan Dada, a marble column with a Corinthian capital decorating the prayer niche

Jamiʿ al-ʿAdiliyya, capital with muqarnas of a column in the double arcade

Jamiʿ al-ʿAdiliyya, capital with muqarnas of a column in the double arcade

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, columns and pillars

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, columns and pillars

Bab al-Hadid, inscription beside the door from outside

Bab al-Hadid, inscription beside the door from outside

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, detail of Corinthian capital

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, detail of Corinthian capital

Jamiʿ Aslan Dada, Corinthian marble capital decorating the prayer niche

Jamiʿ Aslan Dada, Corinthian marble capital decorating the prayer niche

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate's tower with its machicolations and parapets

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate’s tower with its machicolations and parapets

Al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya, general view of the main facade and the entrance

Al-Madrasa az-Zahiriyya, general view of the main facade and the entrance

Fluted column- The Great Colonnade at Afamiya

Fluted column- The Great Colonnade at Afamiya

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate's entrance from the outside

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate’s entrance from the outside

Tetrapylon and Colonnaded Street, 3rd century AD

Tetrapylon and Colonnaded Street, 3rd century AD

Twisted column - The Great Colonnade at Afamiya

Twisted column – The Great Colonnade at Afamiya

Damage pattern, anthropogenic impact on sandstone, Karnak Temple, Luxor, Egypt

Fig. 62, Catalogue of Damage

Afamiya, Remains of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, Remains of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, twisted and fluted columns of the central section of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, twisted and fluted columns of the central section of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, remains of the Great Colonnade (Cardo Maximus)

Afamiya, remains of the Great Colonnade (Cardo Maximus)

Decoration on the Arch of Triumph (Qaws Hadrian)

Decoration on the Arch of Triumph (Qaws Hadrian)

Arch of Triumph (Qaws Hadrian) from the outside

Arch of Triumph (Qaws Hadrian) from the outside

The gate of the northeastern wall, Agora

The gate of the northeastern wall, Agora

Southwest side of the Byzantine Basilica, Qalʿat Burqush

Southwest side of the Byzantine Basilica, Qalʿat Burqush

Qanawat, view of the nymphaeum

Qanawat, view of the nymphaeum

Detail of decorations, Agora

Detail of decorations, Agora

Gallery

Remains of the Cathedral, Qalʿat Burqush

Remains of the Cathedral, Qalʿat Burqush

Arch of Triumph (Qaws Hadrian) from the inside

Arch of Triumph (Qaws Hadrian) from the inside

A side of Agora

A side of Agora

Busra, the Roman theater stage is surrounded by the Islamic citadel

Busra, the Roman theater stage is surrounded by the Islamic citadel