Twisted column - The Great Colonnade at Afamiya

Twisted column – The Great Colonnade at Afamiya

Busra, Roman Theater surrounded by the Islamic Citadel

Busra, Roman Theater surrounded by the Islamic Citadel

Propylaea of Jupiter Temple, Damascus

Propylaea of Jupiter Temple, Damascus

ar-Rusafa -interior view- North Gate of the basilica

ar-Rusafa -interior view- North Gate of the basilica

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, cathedral apse - columns with Corinthian capitals

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, cathedral apse – columns with Corinthian capitals

Mamluk square minaret, Jamiʿ Manjak

Mamluk square minaret, Jamiʿ Manjak

Colorful ornamental motifs on ablaq wall, Jamiʿ as-Sinaniyya

Colorful ornamental motifs on ablaq wall, Jamiʿ as-Sinaniyya

Sacrophagi decorated with sculptures of the dead

Sacrophagi decorated with sculptures of the dead

Capital on the terrace of north arcade, Jamiʿ an-Nuri (mosque), Homs

Capital on the terrace of north arcade, Jamiʿ an-Nuri (mosque), Homs

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, detail of Corinthian capital

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, detail of Corinthian capital

Busra, al-Jami‘ (mosque) al-ʿUmari - the prayer hall

Busra, al-Jami‘ (mosque) al-ʿUmari – the prayer hall

Madrasat al-Firdaws, view to south - courtyard and arcades

Madrasat al-Firdaws, view to south – courtyard and arcades

Busra - al-Jami‘ (mosque) al-ʿUmari - courtyard surrounded by arcades

Busra – al-Jami‘ (mosque) al-ʿUmari – courtyard surrounded by arcades

Alternate ablaq rows in the courtyard of Jamiʿ Manjak

Alternate ablaq rows in the courtyard of Jamiʿ Manjak

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, the current prayer hall was part of ِAleppo's Byzantine cathedral

Al-Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, the current prayer hall was part of ِAleppo’s Byzantine cathedral

Umayyad Mosque, the Mamluk Minaret of Qaytbay on the northwestern corner

Umayyad Mosque, the Mamluk Minaret of Qaytbay on the northwestern corner

Umayyad Mosque, the famous golden mosaic of the facade of the prayer hall overlooking the courtyard

Umayyad Mosque, the famous golden mosaic of the facade of the prayer hall overlooking the courtyard

View from the west, courtyard of Umayyad Mosque

View from the west, courtyard of Umayyad Mosque

General view of the Tetrapylon

General view of the Tetrapylon

Jamiʿ al-Utrush, collapsed roof of prayer hall, eastern part

Jamiʿ al-Utrush, collapsed roof of prayer hall, eastern part

Eastern facade, Jamiʿ Manjak

Eastern facade, Jamiʿ Manjak

Monastery of St. Simeon Stylites, late 5th-early 6th c., Exterior of sanctuary of east basilica (apse from exterior)

Monastery of St. Simeon Stylites, late 5th-early 6th c., Exterior of sanctuary of east basilica (apse from exterior)

Hadrian’s Arch, 3rd century AD, view from south at the entrance to colonnaded street

Hadrian’s Arch, 3rd century AD, view from south at the entrance to colonnaded street

A capital decorated with wavy acanthus leaves, Monastery of Saint Simeon Stylites

A capital decorated with wavy acanthus leaves, Monastery of Saint Simeon Stylites

A capital decorated with acanthus leaves, Monastery of Saint Simeon

A capital decorated with acanthus leaves, Monastery of Saint Simeon

Dayr Zakka (monastery), floor mosaic of the narthex (in situ)

Dayr Zakka (monastery), floor mosaic of the narthex (in situ)

Dayr Zakka (monastery), floor mosaic of the narthex

Dayr Zakka (monastery), floor mosaic of the narthex

Raqqa - "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace - finds

Raqqa – “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace – finds

Damage pattern in the Great Umayyad Mosque in Aleppo, Syria

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Kharab Shams, view from south at church ruin, 4th/6th century CE

Kharab Shams, view from south at church ruin, 4th/6th century CE