View from the courtyard towards the northeastern side of the valley, Dayr Mar Musa al-Habashi

View from the courtyard towards the northeastern side of the valley, Dayr Mar Musa al-Habashi

Bayt Dallal, the basin and the iwan

Bayt Dallal, the basin and the iwan

A lateral Iwan at Bayt Jubran Afandi Shamiyya, Bab Tuma

A lateral Iwan at Bayt Jubran Afandi Shamiyya, Bab Tuma

Nave and apse, Church of monk Buhayra, Busra

Nave and apse, Church of monk Buhayra, Busra

Church of the monk Buhayra, the oldest church in Busra

Church of the monk Buhayra, the oldest church in Busra

Church of the monk Buhayra, Busra

Church of the monk Buhayra, Busra

Bayt Ghazala, 17th c. ground floor plan

Bayt Ghazala, 17th c. ground floor plan

A view of the main facade, the Convent of Our Lady of Saydnaya

A view of the main facade, the Convent of Our Lady of Saydnaya

On the Genocide Memorial Day: at a stop on the pilgrimage, Armenian priests throw wreaths into the Euphrates to commemorate the victims of the genocide of 1915-17 who died in this very river

On the Genocide Memorial Day: at a stop on the pilgrimage, Armenian priests throw wreaths into the Euphrates to commemorate the victims of the genocide of 1915-17 who died in this very river

Roman grave behind the Convent of Our Lady of Saydnaya

Roman grave behind the Convent of Our Lady of Saydnaya

A view of the main facade, the Convent of Our Lady of Saydnaya

A view of the main facade, the Convent of Our Lady of Saydnaya

Bayt Wakil, floor tiles

Bayt Wakil, floor tiles

Stories

Khan Qurdbak, iwan with basement of neighbouring qaʿa

Khan Qurdbak, iwan with basement of neighbouring qaʿa

Jamiʿ al-Khayr, western facade

Jamiʿ al-Khayr, western facade

Jamiʿ al-Khayr, western facade from the inside

Jamiʿ al-Khayr, western facade from the inside

Geodetic grid application example for a courtyard and rooms with rubble, based on a plan of Bayt Ghazala, Aleppo, Syria

Fig.05_geodetic grid over rubble heap

Ash-Shaykh mountain, distant view of 'Arna village

Ash-Shaykh mountain, distant view of ‘Arna village

Natural view near the village of ʿArna on Jabal ash-Shaykh

Natural view near the village of ʿArna on Jabal ash-Shaykh

General view of Maʿlula

General view of Maʿlula

General view of the town of Maʿlula

General view of the town of Maʿlula

Junblat house, the southern iwan decorated with marble and tiles

Junblat house, the southern iwan decorated with marble and tiles

Bayt Jubran Afandi Shamiyya, now the Riʿaya private school, Bab Tuma

Bayt Jubran Afandi Shamiyya, now the Riʿaya private school, Bab Tuma

Fortification of Halabiyya

Fortification of Halabiyya

The northern entrance of the historical city of Dura Europos (Qalʿat as-Salihiyya), end of 4th century BC

The northern entrance of the historical city of Dura Europos (Qalʿat as-Salihiyya), end of 4th century BC

General view from the north, Temple of Bel

General view from the north, Temple of Bel

A view from a high peak of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains

A view from a high peak of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains

A view towards the Euphrates, Jabal ʿAruda

A view towards the Euphrates, Jabal ʿAruda

View to the Proscenium of Palmyra Theater, 2nd c. AD

View to the Proscenium of Palmyra Theater, 2nd c. AD

View of the stage and the scaenae frons, Theater of Palmyra

View of the stage and the scaenae frons, Theater of Palmyra