View into an excavation trench of Tall Bdiri: to stabilize the walls, pilasters were added

View into an excavation trench of Tall Bdiri: to stabilize the walls, pilasters were added

Ar-Raqqa, city wall, showing an arched gate and two towers

Ar-Raqqa, city wall, showing an arched gate and two towers

The semi-circular towers of ar-Raqqa Wall

The semi-circular towers of ar-Raqqa Wall

Ar-Raqqa, part of city wall

Ar-Raqqa, part of city wall

Remains of ar-Raqqa Wall built of mud brick

Remains of ar-Raqqa Wall built of mud brick

Mud bricks, prepared for the restoration of ar-Raqqa Wall

Mud bricks, prepared for the restoration of ar-Raqqa Wall

Part of the city wall of ar-Raqqa after the restoration

Part of the city wall of ar-Raqqa after the restoration

Raqqa, Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - Excavations

Raqqa, Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – Excavations

Burj al-Ghanam, tower's southern facade with its machicolation

Burj al-Ghanam, tower’s southern facade with its machicolation

Dayr Zakka (monastery), floor mosaic in the sanctuary, 595 AD

Dayr Zakka (monastery), floor mosaic in the sanctuary, 595 AD

Two large reservoirs in the ruins of Kharab Sayyar

Two large reservoirs in the ruins of Kharab Sayyar

Raqqa - finds discovered in the site "East of Raqqa", the Eastern Complex, clay decorations

Raqqa – finds discovered in the site “East of Raqqa”, the Eastern Complex, clay decorations

Raqqa, "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa, “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa - excavations at the site "East Raqqa" - the northern complex

Raqqa – excavations at the site “East Raqqa” – the northern complex

Raqqa, enclosure wall and arcade of al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq (Great Mosque)

Raqqa, enclosure wall and arcade of al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq (Great Mosque)

Raqqa, City Wall

Raqqa, City Wall

Raqqa - excavations at the site "East Raqqa" - the northern complex

Raqqa – excavations at the site “East Raqqa” – the northern complex

Raqqa - the excavations of the site "East of Raqqa", the Eastern Complex

Raqqa – the excavations of the site “East of Raqqa”, the Eastern Complex

A coffee house and waiting service taxi in the center of the small frontier town

A coffee house and waiting service taxi in the center of the small frontier town

Dayr Zakka (monastery), mosaic in a destroyed part of the building, showing a palm, a fallow deer and birds

Dayr Zakka (monastery), mosaic in a destroyed part of the building, showing a palm, a fallow deer and birds

Raqqa - excavations at the site "East Raqqa" - the northern complex

Raqqa – excavations at the site “East Raqqa” – the northern complex

Dayr Zakka (monastery), porch (narthex) of the church with mosaic floor, 6th C.

Dayr Zakka (monastery), porch (narthex) of the church with mosaic floor, 6th C.

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, documentation sheet of courtyard with northern Iwan

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, documentation sheet of courtyard with northern Iwan

Raqqa - excavations of the site "East of Raqqa" - Eastern Palace

Raqqa – excavations of the site “East of Raqqa” – Eastern Palace

Dayr Zakka (monastery), floor mosaic of the narthex (in situ)

Dayr Zakka (monastery), floor mosaic of the narthex (in situ)

Oppenheim_98025-fin_SYRHER

Oppenheim_98025-fin_SYRHER

Oppenheim_98025-fin_SYRHER

Oppenheim_98025-fin_SYRHER

Hiraqla victory monument, Western gate - decorative stone panel

Hiraqla victory monument, Western gate – decorative stone panel

Part of Damascus city wall topped by a house balcony

Part of Damascus city wall topped by a house balcony

A small pathway in the Ghuta of Damascus

A small pathway in the Ghuta of Damascus