A wall painting from Zimri-Lim’s palace in Mari (Tall al-Hariri), which is known as "The Ordinator of the Sacrifice" (ca. 1780 BC) and hangs in the Louvre.

A wall painting from Zimri-Lim’s palace in Mari (Tall al-Hariri), which is known as “The Ordinator of the Sacrifice” (ca. 1780 BC) and hangs in the Louvre.

Great Mosque of ar-Raqqa/ar-Rafiqa, 8th/12th c.

Great Mosque of ar-Raqqa/ar-Rafiqa, 8th/12th c.

Aleppo, Bab al-Maqam city gate, general view from south, ca. 1932 during French mandate

Aleppo, Bab al-Maqam city gate, general view from south, ca. 1932 during French mandate

Bab al-Maqam in Aleppo, general view

Bab al-Maqam in Aleppo, general view

Shaykh Shibli shrine - al-Tar mountain, south -east of al-Mayadeen

Shaykh Shibli shrine – al-Tar mountain, south -east of al-Mayadeen

The main facade of al-Bimaristan an-Nuri in Damascus

The main facade of al-Bimaristan an-Nuri in Damascus

Shaykh Shibli shrine - al-Tar mountain, south -east of al-Mayadeen

Shaykh Shibli shrine – al-Tar mountain, south -east of al-Mayadeen

Destroyed shops on the north side of Jamiʿ an-Nuri (mosque), Homs

Destroyed shops on the north side of Jamiʿ an-Nuri (mosque), Homs

Raqqa - "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace, Glazed pottery

Raqqa – “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace, Glazed pottery

Application of the relief paste of a contemporary ‘Ajami decoration

Application of the relief paste of a contemporary ‘Ajami decoration

Izraʿ, al-Jamiʿ (Mosque) al-ʿUmari - the prayer niche

Izraʿ, al-Jamiʿ (Mosque) al-ʿUmari – the prayer niche

Outlining and shadowing of motifs of a contemporary ‘Ajami decoration

Outlining and shadowing of motifs of a contemporary ‘Ajami decoration

Aliya Alnuami is applying the relief paste on her ‘Ajami-work

Aliya Alnuami is applying the relief paste on her ‘Ajami-work

Modern interpretations of the traditional craft of ‘Ajami (workshop of Aliya Alnuami)

Modern interpretations of the traditional craft of ‘Ajami (workshop of Aliya Alnuami)

Aliya Alnuami is applying the relief paste on her ‘Ajami-work

Aliya Alnuami is applying the relief paste on her ‘Ajami-work

Modern interpretations of the traditional craft of ‘Ajami (workshop of Aliya Alnuami)

Modern interpretations of the traditional craft of ‘Ajami (workshop of Aliya Alnuami)

Pre-drawn pattern of a contemporary ‘Ajami decoration

Pre-drawn pattern of a contemporary ‘Ajami decoration

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Qalʿat al-Marqab, Fresco on the ceiling of chapel sacristy, 12th C.

Qalʿat al-Marqab, Fresco on the ceiling of chapel sacristy, 12th C.

Tall al-Mishrifa (ancient Qatna), view of the historic citywall, within which the village is located

Tall al-Mishrifa (ancient Qatna), view of the historic citywall, within which the village is located

Qalʿat al-Marqab, Fresco in ceiling of chapel sacristy, 12th C.

Qalʿat al-Marqab, Fresco in ceiling of chapel sacristy, 12th C.

Bab al-Hadid, inscription beside the door from outside

Bab al-Hadid, inscription beside the door from outside

Damage pattern, rising dump at brickwork with stones, Marrakech, Morocco

Fig. 27, Catalogue of Damage

Rumi motifs on the Aleppo Room

Rumi motifs on the Aleppo Room

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate's entrance from inside

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate’s entrance from inside

Bad al-Hadid, detail of a rank decorating the gate's entrance from outside

Bad al-Hadid, detail of a rank decorating the gate’s entrance from outside

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate's entrance from the outside

Bab al-Hadid, general view of the gate’s entrance from the outside

Sirjilla, andron, 5th c.

Sirjilla, andron, 5th c.

Tower north of Bab Antakiya, a side of the defensive tower after the removal of infringements

Tower north of Bab Antakiya, a side of the defensive tower after the removal of infringements

Tower north of Bab Antakiya. The inscription indicates a restoration by the Mamluk ruler al-Malik al-Muʾayyad Shaykh between 820/1417 and 823/1420

Tower north of Bab Antakiya. The inscription indicates a restoration by the Mamluk ruler al-Malik al-Muʾayyad Shaykh between 820/1417 and 823/1420