al-Hayr al-Sharqi Palace, Inside of the early Umaiyad desert castle (Western complex)

al-Hayr al-Sharqi Palace, Inside of the early Umaiyad desert castle (Western complex)

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, clay decoration

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, clay decoration

Raqqa, Remains of Qasr al-Banat

Raqqa, Remains of Qasr al-Banat

Raqqa, A side of Qasr al-Banat

Raqqa, A side of Qasr al-Banat

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, star-shaped fountain in centre of the courtyard

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, star-shaped fountain in centre of the courtyard

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, clay decorations

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, clay decorations

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, courtyard with southern Iwan

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, courtyard with southern Iwan

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, courtyard with southern Iwan

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, courtyard with southern Iwan

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, courtyard with northern Iwan

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, courtyard with northern Iwan

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, courtyard with northern Iwan

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, courtyard with northern Iwan

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, clay decorations

Raqqa, Qasr al-Banat, clay decorations

Al-Matbakh al-ʿAjami, facade of the west section of the great hall

Al-Matbakh al-ʿAjami, facade of the west section of the great hall

al-Matbakh al-ʿAjami, northwest corner of the large hall

al-Matbakh al-ʿAjami, northwest corner of the large hall

al-Matbakh al-ʿAjami, ground plan and sectional drawings through the large hall

al-Matbakh al-ʿAjami, ground plan and sectional drawings through the large hall

Bouquet of flowers and fruits in bowls on the wooden panels of Bayt ad-Dahhan (Funduq Qasr al-Mansuriyya), 18th century

Bouquet of flowers and fruits in bowls on the wooden panels of Bayt ad-Dahhan (Funduq Qasr al-Mansuriyya), 18th century

Bouquet of flowers and fruits in bowls on the wooden panels of Bayt ad-Dahhan (Funduq Qasr al-Mansuriyya), 18th century

Bouquet of flowers and fruits in bowls on the wooden panels of Bayt ad-Dahhan (Funduq Qasr al-Mansuriyya), 18th century

General view of Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

General view of Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

View from Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn towards the Valley of the Tombs

View from Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn towards the Valley of the Tombs

View to northeast, Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

View to northeast, Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

A side of Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

A side of Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

A side of Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

A side of Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

Part of Qalʿat al-Qadmus

Part of Qalʿat al-Qadmus

View from south, Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

View from south, Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

Vaulted entrance, Qalʿat Harim from the interior

Vaulted entrance, Qalʿat Harim from the interior

A side from historical Qalʿat Masyaf

A side from historical Qalʿat Masyaf

Qalʿat Jaʿbar, vaulted loophole

Qalʿat Jaʿbar, vaulted loophole

Small vaulted passageway, Qalʿat Harim

Small vaulted passageway, Qalʿat Harim

Part of the ruins of Qalʿat Harim

Part of the ruins of Qalʿat Harim

General view of Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn

General view of Qalʿat Ibn Maʿn