Raqqa - Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - one of the wall tower

Raqqa – Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – one of the wall tower

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate (Bab) as seen from outside the fence

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate (Bab) as seen from outside the fence

Raqqa, Great Mosque (al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq), the courtyard

Raqqa, Great Mosque (al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq), the courtyard

Raqqa, The decorated outer facade of Baghdad Gate

Raqqa, The decorated outer facade of Baghdad Gate

Raqqa, the inner façade of Baghdad Gate (Bab Baghdad)

Raqqa, the inner façade of Baghdad Gate (Bab Baghdad)

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, geometric decorations in the niche, built with bricks

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, geometric decorations in the niche, built with bricks

The inner façade of Baghdad Gate, Raqqa

The inner façade of Baghdad Gate, Raqqa

Raqqa, Baghdad gate

Raqqa, Baghdad gate

The minaret of Great Mosque of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 8th/12th C.

The minaret of Great Mosque of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 8th/12th C.

Raqqa, Palace D, stucco decorations

Raqqa, Palace D, stucco decorations

Raqqa, Tall Aswad, stucco

Raqqa, Tall Aswad, stucco

Raqqa - Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - Columns discovered during excavation

Raqqa – Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – Columns discovered during excavation

Tall Aswad near Raqqa, view to an outbuilding of a farmstead

Tall Aswad near Raqqa, view to an outbuilding of a farmstead

Baghdad Gate of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 10th c. onwards

Baghdad Gate of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 10th c. onwards

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Raqqa, Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - Excavations

Raqqa, Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – Excavations

Raqqa, al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq, Remains of the southern arcade from the inside

Raqqa, al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq, Remains of the southern arcade from the inside

Raqqa, Northeast Complex, coin found during the excavation

Raqqa, Northeast Complex, coin found during the excavation

Raqqa - remains of the southern arcade of the Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq

Raqqa – remains of the southern arcade of the Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Raqqa, the archway of Baghdad Gate

Raqqa, the archway of Baghdad Gate

View of the Euphrates River, Raqqa

View of the Euphrates River, Raqqa

Raqqa - remains of the southern arcade of al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq (Great Mosque)

Raqqa – remains of the southern arcade of al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq (Great Mosque)

Preparation of mud for construction in one of Raqqa villages

Preparation of mud for construction in one of Raqqa villages

A woman putting mud in molds to form bricks in a village in Raqqa

A woman putting mud in molds to form bricks in a village in Raqqa

A photo of villagers at the entrance of traditional building under construction, Raqqa

A photo of villagers at the entrance of traditional building under construction, Raqqa

A photo of villagers in front of traditional building under construction, Raqqa

A photo of villagers in front of traditional building under construction, Raqqa

Raqqa, Grand Abbasid Mosque - Plan

Raqqa, Grand Abbasid Mosque – Plan

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Preparation of mud for construction in one of Raqqa villages

Preparation of mud for construction in one of Raqqa villages