Damascus, the eastern part of the city wall near to Bab Kisan

Damascus, the eastern part of the city wall near to Bab Kisan

One of the towers of Qalʿat Salah ad-Din

One of the towers of Qalʿat Salah ad-Din

The main arch and the integrated columns of the Nabataean gate in Busra

The main arch and the integrated columns of the Nabataean gate in Busra

Bab as-Salam, portal with coloured stone layers (ablaq)

Bab as-Salam, portal with coloured stone layers (ablaq)

Reconstruction of Assyrian town Dur Katlimmu

Reconstruction of Assyrian town Dur Katlimmu

Great Umayyad mosque and Madrasa al-Hallawiyya, Aleppo: drone photograph

1512_D.SH_2314428_Madinat-Halab-al-Qadima-05_s

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Damage pattern, water infiltration, on render on brick masonry, Old city center, Warsaw, Poland

Fig. 26, Catalogue of Damage

Damage pattern, crumbling in limestone, City wall, Cairo, Egypt

Fig. 40, Catalogue of Damage

al-Bab ash-Sharqi, a small arched side entrance

al-Bab ash-Sharqi, a small arched side entrance

A side of al-Mudiq castle

A side of al-Mudiq castle

One of the towers of Shayzar Castle

One of the towers of Shayzar Castle

A minaret rises above al-Bab ash-Sharqi

A minaret rises above al-Bab ash-Sharqi

Bab as-Salam, the "door of peace" in the north of Old Damascus

Bab as-Salam, the “door of peace” in the north of Old Damascus

Great Mosque, prayer hall, Shrine of the Prophet, ceramic tiles Zakariya

Great Mosque, prayer hall, Shrine of the Prophet, ceramic tiles Zakariya

Madrasat al-Firdaws, the marble prayer niche (mihrab) decorated with floral and geometric motifs

Madrasat al-Firdaws, the marble prayer niche (mihrab) decorated with floral and geometric motifs

Traditional house in neighborhood "al-Almaji"

Traditional house in neighborhood “al-Almaji”

Main fassade of Jamiʿ at-Tawashi mosque (video)

Main fassade of Jamiʿ at-Tawashi mosque (video)

Jamiʿ al-ʿAdiliyya, general view of central dome

Jamiʿ al-ʿAdiliyya, general view of central dome

The general structure of the example dome house in Taanayel (Libanon) before the end of the construction process

The general structure of the example dome house in Taanayel (Libanon) before the end of the construction process

Paintings in Hananiya church in Bab Tuma quarter

Paintings in Hananiya church in Bab Tuma quarter

A group of domed houses in the village of Shaykh Hilal

A group of domed houses in the village of Shaykh Hilal

A façade of the Shahba baths

A façade of the Shahba baths

One of the towers of Damascus Citadel

One of the towers of Damascus Citadel

The northern-eastern tower of Damascus Citadel

The northern-eastern tower of Damascus Citadel

Lion of goddess Al-Lat, 1st c. AD

Lion of goddess Al-Lat, 1st c. AD

Bayt Wakil (Aleppo-Zimmer), Painted wooden panel, Mary and Jesus

Bayt Wakil (Aleppo-Zimmer), Painted wooden panel, Mary and Jesus

Wakil House, decorated windows

Wakil House, decorated windows

Aleppo, Khan as-Sabun, view of courtyard towards west

Aleppo, Khan as-Sabun, view of courtyard towards west

A modern building and a traditional mud fence in one of the Ghouta fields of Damascus

A modern building and a traditional mud fence in one of the Ghouta fields of Damascus