Raqqa, The decorated outer facade of Baghdad Gate

Raqqa, The decorated outer facade of Baghdad Gate

The arcade wall of Great Mosque of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 8th/12th C.

The arcade wall of Great Mosque of Raqqa-Rafiqa, 8th/12th C.

Raqqa, the archway of Baghdad Gate

Raqqa, the archway of Baghdad Gate

View of the Euphrates River, Raqqa

View of the Euphrates River, Raqqa

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Preparation of mud for construction in one of Raqqa villages

Preparation of mud for construction in one of Raqqa villages

A woman putting mud in molds to form bricks in a village in Raqqa

A woman putting mud in molds to form bricks in a village in Raqqa

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Raqqa, Northeast Complex

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Raqqa, hypothetic reconstruction of the prayer hall of Grand Abbasid Mosque (al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq)

Raqqa, hypothetic reconstruction of the prayer hall of Grand Abbasid Mosque (al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq)

Raqqa, Map draft of ar- Rafiqa and its walls

Raqqa, Map draft of ar- Rafiqa and its walls

Raqqa, Bagdad Gate, Drawing of total reconstruction

Raqqa, Bagdad Gate, Drawing of total reconstruction

Preparation of mud for construction in one of Raqqa villages

Preparation of mud for construction in one of Raqqa villages

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, Façade decorations: three-lobed niches and arched frames resting on colonnette

Church of the Armenians in ar-Raqqa

Church of the Armenians in ar-Raqqa

Raqqa, Remains of Qasr al-Banat

Raqqa, Remains of Qasr al-Banat

Raqqa, "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa, “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

ar-Raqqa - Qasr al-Banat, the courtyard surrounded by four iwans

ar-Raqqa – Qasr al-Banat, the courtyard surrounded by four iwans

A photo of villagers at the entrance of traditional building under construction, Raqqa

A photo of villagers at the entrance of traditional building under construction, Raqqa

A photo of villagers in front of traditional building under construction, Raqqa

A photo of villagers in front of traditional building under construction, Raqqa

Raqqa, Baghdad gate

Raqqa, Baghdad gate

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate (Bab) as seen from outside the fence

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate (Bab) as seen from outside the fence

Raqqa, the inner façade of Baghdad Gate (Bab Baghdad)

Raqqa, the inner façade of Baghdad Gate (Bab Baghdad)

Raqqa, Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - Excavations

Raqqa, Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – Excavations

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, geometric decorations in the niche, built with bricks

Raqqa, Baghdad Gate, geometric decorations in the niche, built with bricks

The inner façade of Baghdad Gate, Raqqa

The inner façade of Baghdad Gate, Raqqa

Raqqa, al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq, Remains of the southern arcade from the inside

Raqqa, al-Jamiʿ al-ʿAtiq, Remains of the southern arcade from the inside

Raqqa - Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - one of the wall tower

Raqqa – Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – one of the wall tower

Raqqa, Grand Abbasid Mosque - Plan

Raqqa, Grand Abbasid Mosque – Plan