Al-Madrasa al-Ahmadiyya, column with its capital

Al-Madrasa al-Ahmadiyya, column with its capital

Bab Qinnasrin (city gate), exterior view of the gate from south-west

Bab Qinnasrin (city gate), exterior view of the gate from south-west

View from the west, courtyard of Umayyad Mosque

View from the west, courtyard of Umayyad Mosque

Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, interior

Waqf of Ibshir Mustafa Pasha, Coffeehouse, interior

Umayyad Mosque, the famous golden mosaic of the facade of the prayer hall overlooking the courtyard

Umayyad Mosque, the famous golden mosaic of the facade of the prayer hall overlooking the courtyard

Raqqa - Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall - Columns discovered during excavation

Raqqa – Madinat ar-Rafiqa wall – Columns discovered during excavation

Remains of the facade of an building, Sirjilla

Remains of the facade of an building, Sirjilla

Mamluk square minaret, Jamiʿ Manjak

Mamluk square minaret, Jamiʿ Manjak

Colorful ornamental motifs on ablaq wall, Jamiʿ as-Sinaniyya

Colorful ornamental motifs on ablaq wall, Jamiʿ as-Sinaniyya

Afamiya, Remains of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, Remains of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, twisted and fluted columns of the central section of the Great Colonnade

Afamiya, twisted and fluted columns of the central section of the Great Colonnade

Monastery of St. Simeon Stylites, late 5th-early 6th c., Exterior of sanctuary of east basilica (apse from exterior)

Monastery of St. Simeon Stylites, late 5th-early 6th c., Exterior of sanctuary of east basilica (apse from exterior)

Raqqa, "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa, “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace, vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa - "East of Raqqa" site - Western Palace - vegetable stucco ornaments

Raqqa – “East of Raqqa” site – Western Palace – vegetable stucco ornaments

View into the courtyard of the Great Mosque of Hama

View into the courtyard of the Great Mosque of Hama

Stucco decorations in situ, Kharab Sayyar

Stucco decorations in situ, Kharab Sayyar

Damascus, Propylaea of Jupiter Temple, 1st CE. AD

Damascus, Propylaea of Jupiter Temple, 1st CE. AD

Jamiʿ at-Tawashi, east facade - one of the two columns which frame a window

Jamiʿ at-Tawashi, east facade – one of the two columns which frame a window

Remains of two-storey building, Sirjilla

Remains of two-storey building, Sirjilla

Citadel of Aleppo, general view of the Throne Hall

Citadel of Aleppo, general view of the Throne Hall

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Archaeological finds from Raqqa, exhibited in the Damascus National Museum

Afamiya, remains of the Great Colonnade (Cardo Maximus)

Afamiya, remains of the Great Colonnade (Cardo Maximus)

ar-Rusafa, North Gate of the city wall, interior

ar-Rusafa, North Gate of the city wall, interior

Sacrophagi decorated with sculptures of the dead

Sacrophagi decorated with sculptures of the dead

Damage pattern, corrosion of an iron connector led to cracks and outburst, Acropolis, Athens

Fig. 24, Catalogue of Damage

Madrasat al-Firdaws, view of the southern arcade and the prayer hall entrance

Madrasat al-Firdaws, view of the southern arcade and the prayer hall entrance

Columns with Corinthian capitals in one of Sirjilla's buildings

Columns with Corinthian capitals in one of Sirjilla’s buildings

Tetrapylon and Colonnaded Street, 3rd century AD

Tetrapylon and Colonnaded Street, 3rd century AD

Dayr Zakka (monastery), floor mosaic of the narthex

Dayr Zakka (monastery), floor mosaic of the narthex